Consumo de tabaco en poblaciones estigmatizadas: una revisión de la literatura en Pubmed Tabaco en población estigmatizada

Adriana Bravo, María Carolina Cabrera, Luisa Fernanda Gómez, Andrés Felipe Pinto, Diego Rosselli

Resumen


Introducción: las poblaciones de esquizofrénicos, homosexuales, presidiarios y trabajadores sexuales, están expuestas a factores de riesgo que afectan su morbimortalidad.

Objetivo: revisar la literatura indexada en PubMed para tratar de cuantificar el incremento del consumo de tabaco en estos grupos.

Materiales y métodos: se diseñó una estrategia de búsqueda sensible para cada uno de los grupos de interés. Dos integrantes del equipo revisaron títulos y resúmenes independientemente para excluir los irrelevantes. Luego de conseguir los textos completos se tabuló la información de cada estudio.

Resultados: de 1.894 referencias, se excluyeron 1.365 en un primer filtro, 91 no se consiguieron y 206 estudios, provenientes de 31 países, aportaron información (101 de esquizofrenia, 68 de población homosexual, 31 de presidiarios y 6 de trabajadores sexuales). Las razones de disparidad (IC 95 %) contra grupo control fueron: esquizofrénicos 3,34 (2,95 - 3,78); población homosexual 2,03 (1,84 – 2,26); presidiarios hombres 6,60 (5,15 - 8,46), mujeres 9,72 (5,95 - 15,90) y trabajadoras sexuales 26,3 (6,7 – 103,2).

Discusión: el consumo de tabaco es consistentemente elevado en estos grupos estigmatizados. Unido a otros estilos de vida poco saludables explican por qué sus riesgos en salud son mayores. Es necesario diseñar estrategias de intervención específicas para cada grupo.


Palabras clave


esquizofrenia; fumar; homosexualidad; prisioneros; prostitución; tabaco

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30789/rcneumologia.v27.n4.2015.70

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