Asma en la infancia: controversias que conllevan al subdiagnóstico

José Miguel Escamilla Arrieta, MD., María Isabel Escamilla, MD., César Andrés Muñoz Mejía, MD., MSc.

Resumen


El asma es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la niñez y conduce a múltiples complicaciones, fenómeno que en la actualidad representa un problema de salud pública. El reporte de síntomas bronco-obstructivos es mucho mayor que el diagnóstico médico de asma durante la infancia, hecho que sugiere que hay una tendencia a no reconocer que los niños en esta edad sufren de esta enfermedad y por tanto eventualmente se ocasiona retraso en su tratamiento. El rechazo a clasificar a los pacientes como asmáticos, la falta de un consenso diagnóstico, los múltiples fenotipos, la flexibilidad de las escalas de severidad y el desconocimiento del asma en la infancia como una enfermedad intermitente pero potencialmente grave, son factores del manejo médico que podrían favorecer una alta morbilidad. Esta revisión plantea la necesidad de ser más contundentes en el diagnóstico del asma en la infancia, sin caer en retrasos que permitan iniciar un tratamiento oportuno y adecuado.

Palabras clave


asma; infancia; diagnóstico; tratamiento; fenotipos

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30789/rcneumologia.v27.n3.2015.80

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