La crisis de la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2 desde el punto de vista de los neumólogos.

La crisis de la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2 desde el punto de vista de los neumólogos.

Contenido principal del artículo

Liliana Fernández Trujillo

Detalles del artículo

Referencias (VER)

World Health Organization [Internet]. Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Disponible en: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/330775

World Health Organization [Internet]. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Laboratory testing for 2019- nCoV in humans. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/laboratory-guidance/

Organización Panamericana de la Salud [Internet]. Actualización epidemiológica nuevo coronavirus (2019- nCoV). Última visita: 20 de enero de 2020. Disponible en: https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&category_slug=coronavirus-alertas-epidemiologicas&alias=51355-20-de-enero-de-2020-nuevo-coronavirus-ncov-actualizacionepidemiologica-1&Itemid=270&lang=en

World Health Organization [Internet]. Infecciones por coronavirus. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/es/5. World Health Organization [Internet]. Global surveillance for human infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Última visita: Disponible en: https://www.who.int/publicationsdetail/global-surveillance-for-human-infection-with-novelcoronavirus-(2019-ncov)

World Health Organization [Internet]. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation report. Disponible en: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330778/nCoVsitrep02Feb2020-eng.pdf

John Hopkins University. COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE). Disponible en: https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6

Munster VJ, Koopmans M, van Doremalen N, van Riel D, de Wit M. A novel coronavirus emerging in China - Key questions for impact assessment. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):692- 4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2000929.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song I, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:727-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, china, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13):1199-207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.

Paules C, Marston H, Fauci A. Coronavirus infections – More than just the common cold. JAMA. 2020;323(8):707-8. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.0757.

Ministerio de Salud [Internet]. Nuevo coronavirus (nCoV). Disponible en: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/salud/publica/PET/Paginas/Nuevo-Coronavirus-nCoV.aspx

Ministerio de Salud [Internet]. Manual de medidas básicas para el control de infecciones en IPS. Disponible en: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/salud/publica/PET/Paginas/Covid-19_copia.aspx.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud [Internet]. Prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud recomendaciones básicas. Disponible en: https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&category_slug=guias-5603&alias=47902-recomendaciones-basicas-para-la-prevencion-y-control-de-infecciones-asociadas-a-la-atencion-de-la-salud-1&Itemid=270&lang=es

Patel A, Jernigan DB; 2019-nCoV CDC Response Team. Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(5):140-6. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6905e1.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterization and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Zhao J, Hun Y, Zhang L, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708-20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.

Feng Y, Ling Y, Bai T, Xie Y, Huang J, Li J, et al. COVID-19 with different severity: a multi-center study of clinical features. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201(11):1380-8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202002-0445OC.

Ji D, Zhang D, Xu J, Chen Z, Yang T, Zhao P, et al. Prediction for progression risk in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: the CALL score. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(6). doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa414.

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:1054-62. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.

Guo L, Wei D, Zhang X, Wu Y, Li Q, Zhou M, et al. Clinical features predicting mortality risk in patients with viral pneumonia: The MuLBSTAScore. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:2752. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02752.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):475-81. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5.

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(5):846-8. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-05991-x.

Bai L, Yang D, Wang X, Tong L, Zhu X, Zhong N, et al. Chinese experts’ consensus on the Internet of things-aided diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical eHealth. 2020;3:7-15. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceh.2020.03.001.

Rubin GD, Ryerson CJ, Haramati LB, Sverzellati N, Kanne JP, Raoof S, et al. The role of chest imaging in patient management during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner Society. Chest. 2020;296(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.04.003.

Simpson S, Kay F, Abbara S, Bhalla S, Chung JH, Chung M, et al. Radiological Society of North America expert Consensus Statement on Reporting Chest CT findings related to COVID-19: endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American Colleges of Radiology, and RSNA. Radiol Cardiothor Imag. 2020;2(2):e200152. doi: https://doi.org/10.1148/ryct.2020200152.

British Society of Thoracic Imaging. COVID-19 BSTI imaging database. Disponible en: https://www.bsti.org.uk/training-andeducation/covid-19-bsti-imaging-database/

Cheng Z, Lu Y, Cao Q, Qin L, Pan Z, Yan F, et al. Clinical features and chest CT manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a single-center study in Shanghai, China. Am J Roentgenol. 2020;215:121-6. 10.2214/AJR.20.22959.

Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 patients. Am J Roentgenol. 2020;215:87-93. 10.2214/AJR.20.23034.

Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, et al. Correlation of chest CT and RTPCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases. Radiology. 2020:200642. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020200642 .

Ye Z, Zang Y, Wang Y, Song B. Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 2020;30:4381-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06801-0.

Infectious Diseases Society of America [Internet]. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. Disponible en: https://www.idsociety.org/practice-guideline/covid-19-guideline-treatment-and-management/

Jin YH , Cai L , Cheng ZH , Cheng H , Deng T, Fan YP, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Mil Med Res. 2020;7:4. doi: 10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6.

University of Oxford [Internet]. Statement from the Chief Investigators of the randomised evaluation of COVID-19 therapy (RECOVERY) trial on lopinavir-ritonavir. 2020. Disponible en: https://www.recoverytrial.net/files/lopinavirritonavir-recovery-statement-29062020_final.pdf

Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020:105949. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.

Cortegiani A, Ingoglia g, Ippolito M, Giarratano A, Einav S. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. J Crit Care. 2020;57:279-83. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005.

Silva MG, Fonseca F, Souza V, Almeida M, Cardoso G, Brito M, et al. Effect of high vs. low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e208857.doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857.

Horby P, Mafham M, Linsell L, Bell JL, Staplin N, Emberson JR, Wiselka M, et al. Effect of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial. medRxiv. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.15.20151852.

Beigel JH, Tomashek JM, Dodd LE, Mehta AK, Zingman BS, Kalil AC, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(19):1813-26. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007764.

Xu X, Han M, Li T, Sun W, Wang D, Fu B, et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020;117(20):10970-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2005615117.

Guaraldi G, Meschiari M, Cozzi-Lepri A, Milic J, Tonelli R, Menozzi M, et al. Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020;2(8):E474-84. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30173-9.

Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(4):844-7. doi: 10.1111/jth.14768.

Schmitt FCF, Manolov V, Morgenstern J, Fleming T, Heitmeier S, Uhle F, et al. Acute fibrinolysis shutdown occurs early in septic shock and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality: results of an observational pilot study. Ann Intensive Care. 2019;9(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13613-019-0499-6.

Gupta N, Zhao Y-Y, Evans CE. The stimulation of thrombosis by hypoxia. Thromb Res. 2019;181:77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2019.07.013.

Luo W, Yu H, Gou J, Li X, Sun Y, Li J, et al. Clinical pathology of critical patient with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Pathol Pathobiol. 2020. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003412.

Tang N, Bai H, Chen X, Gong J, Li D, Sun Z. Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(5):1094-9. doi: 10.1111/jth.14817.

Poterucha TJ, Libby P, Goldhaber SZ. More than an anticoagulant: Do heparins have direct anti-inflammatory effects? Thromb Haemost. 2017;117(3):437-44. doi: 10.1160/TH16-08-0620.

Stein PD, Kayali F, Olson RE, Milford CE. Pulmonary thromboembolism in Asians/Pacific islanders in the United States: analysis of data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the United States Bureau of the Census. Am J Med. 2004;116(7):435-42. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.11.020.

Aikawa N, Shimazaki S, Yamamoto Y, Saito H, Maruyama I, Ohno R, et al. Thrombomodulin alfa in the treatment of infectious patients complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation: subanalysis from the phase 3 trial. Shock. 2011;35(4):349-54. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e318204c019.

Iba T, Gando S, Thachil J. Anticoagulant therapy for sepsisassociated disseminated intravascular coagulation: the view from Japan. J Thromb Haemost. 2014 Jul;12(7):1010-9. doi: 10.1111/jth.12596.

Iba T, Nisio MD, Levy JH, Kitamura N, Thachil J. New criteria for sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) following the revised sepsis definition: a retrospective analysis of a nationwide

survey. BMJ Open. 2017;7(9):e017046. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017046.

Zhang Y, Cao W, Xiao M, Li YJ, Yang Y, Zhao J, et al. [Clinical and coagulation characteristics of 7 patients with critical COVID-2019 pneumonia and acro-ischemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2020;41(0):E006. doi: 10.3760/ cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2020.0006.

Ejaz A, Ahmed MM, Tasleem A, Rafay Khan Niazi M, Ahsraf MF, Ahmad I, et al. Thromboprophylaxis in Intensive Care Unit patients: a literature review. Cureus. 2018;10(9):e3341. doi: 10.7759/cureus.3341.

Cui S, Chen S, Li X, Liu S, Wang F. Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(6):1421-4. doi: 10.1111/jth.14830.

Klok FA, Kruip MJHA, van der Meer NJM, Arbous MS, Gommers DAMPJ, Kant KM, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thromb Res. 2020;191:145-7. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.013.

Klok FA, Kruip MJHA, van der Meer NJM, Arbous MS, Gommers D, Kant KM, et al. Confirmation of the high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19: an updated analysis. Thromb Res. 2020;191:148-50. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.041.

Helms J, Tacquard C, Severac F, Leonard-Lorant I, Ohana M, Delabranche X, et al. High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(6):1089-98. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06062-x.

Poissy J, Goutay J, Caplan M, Parmentier E, Duburcq T, Lassalle F, et al. Pulmonary embolism in patients with COVID-19: awareness of an increased prevalence. Circulation. 2020;142(2):184-6. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047430.

Susen S, Tacquard CA, Godon A, Mansour A, Garrigue D, Nguyen P, et al. Prevention of thrombotic risk in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and hemostasis monitoring. Crit Care. 2020;24:364. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03000-7.

Schünemann HJ, Cushman M, Burnett AE, Kahn SR, Beyer-Westendorf J, Spencer FA, et al. American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: prophylaxis for hospitalized and non-hospitalized medical patients. Blood Adv. 2018;2(22):3198-225. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018022954.

Mehta P, Mcauley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ, et al. Correspondence COVID-19 : consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet. 2020;6736(20):19-20. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0.

Murthy S, Gomersall CD, Fowler RA. Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;323(15):1499-1500. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3633.

Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(15):762-8. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa248.

Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1033-4. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0.

Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zerón P, López-Guillermo A, Khamashta MA, Bosch X. Adult haemophagocytic syndrome. Lancet. 2014;383(9927):1503-16. doi: 10.1016/S0140- 6736(13)61048-X.

Fardet L, Galicier L, Lambotte O, Marzac C, Aumont C, Chahwan D, et al. Development and validation of the HScore, a score for the diagnosis of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(9):2613-20. doi: 10.1002/art.38690.

So LK, Lau AC, Yam LY, Cheung TM, Poon E, Yung RW, et al. Development of a standard treatment protocol for severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2003;361(9369):1615-7. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13265-5.

Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030343.

Tsai MJ, Yang KY, Chan MC, Kao KC, Wang HC, Perng WC, et al. Impact of corticosteroid treatment on clinical outcomes of influenza-associated ARDS: a nationwide multicenter study. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-0642-4.

Lansbury L, Rodrigo C, Leonardi-Bee J, Nguyen-Van-Tam J, Lim WS. Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;48(2):e98- e106. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004093.

Rodrigo C, Leonardi-Bee J, Nguyen-Van-Tam J, Lim WS. Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD010406. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010406.pub2.

Wang Y, Jiang W, He Q, Wang C, Wang B, Zhou P, et al. Early, low-dose and short-term application of corticosteroid treatment in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: single-center experience from Wuhan, China. medRxiv. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.06.20032342.

Zhou ZG, Xie SM, Zhang J, Zheng F, Jiang DX, Li KY, et al. Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin effectively reverses COVID-19 patients who have failed low-dose therapy. Preprints. 2020;2020030065. doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0065.v1.

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL, et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 - Preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2020:NEJMoa2021436. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021436.

Marano G, Vaglio S, Pupella S, Facco G, Catalano L, Liumbruno GM, et al. Convalescent plasma: new evidence for an old therapeutic tool? Blood Transfus. 2016;14(2):152-7. doi: 10.2450/2015.0131-15.

Garraud O, Heshmati F, Pozzetto B, Lefrere F, Girot R, Saillol A, et al. Plasma therapy against infectious pathogens, as of yesterday, today and tomorrow. Transfus Clin Biol. 2016;23(1):39-44. doi: 10.1016/j.tracli.2015.12.003.

McGonagle D, Sharif K, O’Regan A, Bridgewood C. The role of cytokines including interleukin-6 in COVID-19 induced pneumonia and macrophage activation syndrome-like disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2020;19(6):102537. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102537.

Wan S, Yi Q, Fan S, Lv J, Zhang X, Guo X, et al. Characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood of 123 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). MedRxiv. 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.02.10.20021832.

Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, Yang Y, Li J, Yuan J, et al. Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. JAMA. 2020;323(16):1582-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4783.

Duan K, Liu B, Li C, Zhang H, Yu T, Qu J, et al. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(17):9490-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2004168117.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration [Internet]. Recommendations for investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma. 2020. Última visita: 13 de abril de 2020. Disponible en: https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/investigational-newdrug-ind-or-device-exemption-ide-process-cber/recommendations-investigational-covid-19-convalescent-plasma

Rojas M, Rodríguez Y, Monsalve DM, Acosta-Ampudia Y,Camacho B, Gallo JE, et al. Convalescent plasma in COVID-19: possible mechanisms of action. Autoimmun Rev. 2020;19(7):102554. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102554.

Singh VK, Mishra A, Singh S, Kumar P, Singh M, Jagannath C, et al. Emerging prevention and treatment strategies to control COVID-19. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E501. doi: 10.3390/pathogens9060501.

Singer BD, Jain M, Budinger S, Wunderink RG. A call for rational intensive care in the era of COVID-19. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2020;63(1):132-3. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2020-0151LE.